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Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur (28.02.1683 - 17.10.1757)

Rene-Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur

Rene de Reaumur ist bekannt als Begründer der nach ihm benannten Temperaturskala, obwohl dies aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht seine unbedeutendste Arbeit war. In Frankreich wurde seine Temperaturskala bis ins 20. Jahrhundert hinein angewendet. Reaumur benutzte den Schmelzpunkt des Eises als Fixpunkt und setzte ihn willkürlich zu 0. Ein Grad auf seiner Skala entspricht der Temperaturdifferenz, bei der sich das Volumen des Alkohols um 1 Promille vergrößert. Der Siedepunkt des Wassers ergab sich danach zu 80 Grad.

Um Mängel des Thermometers nach Fahrenheit zu beseitigen, konstruierte er 1731 ein neues, im Grundsatz gleiches Alkoholthermometer. Durch Fehler bei der Herstellung bedingt waren die Messungen mit unterschiedlichen Thermometern ungenau.

Reaumur wurde 1683 in La Rochelle geboren und verbrachte dort seine Jugend. Er lernte Philosophie in der Jesuitenschule in Poitiers und studierte Jura in Bourges, bevor er nach Paris zog und sich dem Studium der Mathematik zuwandte. 1708 wurde er zum Mitglied der Academie des Sciences ernannt. Von dieser Zeit an verging kaum ein Jahr, in welchem die Academie des Sciences nicht wenigstens eine neue Veröffentlichung von Reaumur erhielt.

Zunächst beschäftigte sich Reaumur mit mathematischen Studien, besonders mit Geometrie. Er interessierte sich für alles, was mit Technologie zu tun hatte. 1710 erhielt Reaumur von der Academie des Sciences den Auftrag, die natürlichen sowie die industriellen Ressourcen Frankreichs zu erkunden. Daraufhin untersuchte Reaumur zahlreiche Industriezweige einschließlich der Goldprospektierung und der Eisenherstellung und führte zahlreiche praktische Untersuchungen durch, die in der Folge zu neuen Industriezweigen in Frankreich führten. Er leistete Pionierarbeit auf dem Gebiet der Herstellung von duktilem Gusseisen, untersuchte die Unterschiede zwischen Eisen und Stahl und gilt durch seine Entdeckungen als Begründer der Eisen- und Stahlindustrie. Ein von ihm entwickeltes Verfahren wurde während der ersten 150 Jahre wenig angewandt, wird aber heute noch eingesetzt. Für diese Arbeit erhielt er eine Pension in Höhe von 12.000,- Livres, die er nicht für sich privat verwendete, sondern der Academie des Sciences überantwortete, damit diese weitere Experimente finanzieren konnte, um die französische Industrie weiter voran zu bringen.

Reaumur war der erste, der die Mikrostruktur der Metalle mit Hilfe der Mikroskopie untersuchte und begründete damit die moderne Metallurgie. Er untersuchte die Natur fester Substanzen wie die von Keramiken, analysierte die chemische Zusammensetzung von chinesischem Porzellan und entwickelte sein eigenes „Reaumur-Porzellan“, ein mattes Glas.

Bis zum Jahre 1719 wurde Papier ausschließlich aus alten Kleidungsstücken und Lumpen hergestellt. Inspiriert durch Beobachtung von Wespen schlug Reaumur vor, Holz für die Papierherstellung einzusetzen, um der Knappheit der Rohstoffquellen zu entgegnen.

Reaumur war alles andere als ein Spezialist und beschäftigte sich mit zahlreichen unterschiedlichen Disziplinen. Er war einer der bedeutendsten Zoologen seiner Zeit und veröffentlichte sechs Bände über die Naturkunde der Insekten (1734 - 1742), interessierte sich für Physiologie, studierte die Verdauung der Vögel (1752) und gilt als einer der Pioniere der Genetik. Seine Arbeiten waren die Basis für die Untersuchungen Gregor Mendels. Reaumur gelang der Nachweis, dass Korallen keine Pflanzen sondern Tiere sind.

Reaumur starb 1757 in Bremondiere. Seine Mineralien- und Pflanzensammlung vermachte er der Academie des Sciences.


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